How exactly do speed intervals make you faster?
First, let’s take a look at the physiology behind things. During speed workouts, you maximally activate your slow-twitch muscles and intermediate muscle fibers. This in turn increases your aerobic capacity.
Speed workouts also increase your production of myoglobin, myoglobin is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in muscle tissues. Myoglobin transports oxygen to the mitochondria (membrane-bound cell organelles that generate most of the chemical energy needed to power the cell's biochemical reactions) in your muscles, which in turn produce ATP to give your muscles energy. As you increase your myoglobin levels, you improve your body’s ability to quickly transport oxygen to your muscles for energy…making you able to run faster. High-intensity running is the best way to develop myoglobin.
While genetics play a major role in just how fast you can become, you will still see benefits from performing speedwork. Your body will become more efficient at recruiting your fast-twitch muscles. Fast twitch muscle fibers disappear 1% each year. So, it is important to do speedwork and strength training.
Your running economy will improve so that you expend less energy while running faster and your stride will be more powerful. Runners with strong legs and a good technique are able to propel themselves forward and have a longer stride. This also mean less injuries. When you run fast, you have a wider range of motion. This will improve flexibility, use more muscles, and better form means less injuries.
You will improve fat burning. 100% of fat is burned during a speed session compared to just 50% fat during a long-distance run. During your session your body will burn off carbs as its main energy source; however, after your session your body will start to burn off fat. This is your body’s natural reaction to resupply your anaerobic system and aid in recovery. * On the flip side, you’ll likely to pick up a few muscle strains when you start your journey to becoming a stronger/faster runner. It happens to everyone so don’t be disheartened - trust the process.
So simply put, if you want to run faster, you have to practice running faster! Speed workouts train you how to output more effort, maintain a higher cadence, and mentally cope with physical discomfort while running. If you practice this skill once per week consistently, you won’t just become faster -you will run faster with less effort.
Now let’s debunk one thought many of you have: You need to be fast to do speed work.
There is no pace requirement to do speed workouts. Every level runner can receive benefits from doing speed work. Even if running faster is not one of your goals, speed workouts should still be part of your routine to get a well-rounded training program.
Your paces for speed workouts are relative to your current fitness. Your body knows effort and that is purely what you go by! Speed work is performed at an effort that is hard (think an 8-9 out of 10). It doesn’t matter if hard is a 5-minute mile for you or a 10-minute mile for you.
Implementing speed workouts into your running routine will improve your stride, speed, and endurance. Together, these will enable you to run faster with less effort during your daily training runs. Becoming a more efficient runner will also help you get fewer injuries.
Additionally, a race day strategy can be planned once you gain the experience from these fast-paced training sessions. Your body will learn to tolerate the physical and mental discomforts while racing.
Societal pressures have created a toxic environment for individuals with regard to their nutrition, especially with regard to women. We are bombarded by trendy diets and Instagram challenges to show how skinny we can be and if we aren't we should be ashamed. However, to have feelings of guilt and shame for being hungry or for wanting to eating carbs is like feeling guilty for needing breathe air. Our basic human needs are now a basis of shame and ridicule and it is about time to refuse to feel guilty - You are allowed to eat!
So, what happens when we become obsessed with this culture and where do we differentiate disordered eating and eating disorders? First, we need to understand what the normal standard is.
Standard eating habits are when an individual sensibly consumes food when they are hungry and is able to stop when they are full. Additionally, the individual incorporates a variety of foods into their diet. Now, under this definition, many people who consider themselves to have a terrific relationship with food, may be classified as “disordered eaters”: maybe they eat when they’re bored, have the same thing for lunch daily, or possibly cut out a main food group (i.e. carbs), etc. Societal pressures, as well as fascinations with weight loss and exercise, may lead individuals to alter their food intake. Some may say "this works for me". More so, It does not interfere with their lives; they are able to find food they’re comfortable with eating at any many restaurants and they do not feel overwhelmed to a point where they want to change their habits. For others, this way of eating can be a precursor to developing an eating disorder.
There are three critical factors to look for when wondering if someone has a disorder. Behaviors, obsession, and functionality that will let your nutritionists, dietician, or yourself know where your habits lay.
When an individual is struggling with an eating disorder, they generally engage in multiple behaviors. These behaviors could involve food, body image, and their mood. The level of obsession around eating thoughts and behaviors can distinguish disordered eating from an eating disorder.
What are eating disorders? Well, the most common eating disorders are binge eating disorder, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, and each disorder presents differently and they all have long term consequences to your body.
Anorexia is characterized by a distorted body image along with an unwarranted fear of being overweight. These individuals may not only try to starve themselves but they might try to rid their bodies of any caloric intake they consumed by self-induced vomiting, diuretics, laxatives, and heavy exercise regimes.
Bulimia nervosa involves distortion of one's body image and an obsessive desire to lose weight, in which bouts of extreme overeating are followed by depression/guilt and self-induced vomiting, fasting.
Binge Eating Disorder (more commonly known as BED) is characterized by repeated episodes of uncontrolled intake of large amounts of food in a short period of time. These binging episodes are followed by feelings of guilt and emotional distress. Having at least three of these symptoms while binging is apparent in BED:
• Eating until you are uncomfortably full
• Eating quicker than normal
• Eating a large consumption of food when not hungry
• You find yourself eating alone because of embarrassment
• Feeling ashamed, depressed, or guilty after the episode
So what is the difference between having a eating disorder and having disordered eating?
What Is Disordered Eating?
Disordered eating is not an "eating disorder"; however, it is an abnormal behavior that can possibly become dangerous. Disordered eating occurs when individuals eat for other reasons than hunger, performance nutrition, or optimal nutrition. Individuals may eat when they are bored/stressed, feed their emotions, skip meals, engage in binging/purging, may leave out major food groups, or eat the same thing every day.
Although both disordered eating and eating disorders are abnormal, eating disorders have very specific diagnostic criteria outlining frequent and severe behaviors.
Many of the individuals demonstrate problematic or disordered relationships with food, body, and exercise. Individuals may count calories, over-exercise, exercise solely to lose weight, and cringe at the sight of skin rolls, dimples on legs/arms, and cellulite. What we must remember is that these are normal and it is time to start normalizing bodies of all shapes and sizes. Perfect bodies to not exist. Everyone is built differently and require different amounts of nutrients to maintain homeostasis for THEIR body and activity level.
What should I eat? That is the question most of us ask ourselves prior to our daily and long runs. The answer to the question depends on a few factors. What time are you working out, how intense will the workout be, and when was the last time you ingested anything. Based on your answers to these questions we can figure out what will need to eaten before working out, the timing of when to eat it, and what it is that you should eat.
When was the last time you ate?
If you are competing or working out first thing in the morning, this means your last the last meal or snack was the night before. This should indicate to you that you most likely need a small meal or snack before beginning your run. Glycogen is the main fuel source for your body (stored in your muscles and liver). When the body needs a boost of energy or when the body isn't getting glucose from food, glycogen is broken down to release glucose into our bloodstream to be used as fuel. Since much of your glycogen has been depleted overnight; whatever you eat for breakfast will top off your glycogen storages.
The importance of eating before your run is dependent on the type and intensity of the run being performed. If you are planning to go for a short training session, your fueling strategy is pretty simple. If a short run or a few intervals planned for the day, you won’t need to eat much, if anything, before starting.
If your run or race is intense and/or going to last longer than 60 minutes, it is recommended to eat a small meal or snack beforehand. Not eating before an intense workout or race can lead to decreased glycogen stores and muscle protein breakdown resulting in fatigue and poor sports performance.
Keep meals minimal before short or intense runs. Ideally a meal should be eaten 3-4 hours before exercise for sufficient digestion and to increase your muscle and liver glycogen stores; however, exercising first thing in the morning does make this more difficult. When there is less time available, lean towards eating easily digestible food with more carbohydrates (less fat and protein). This will provide the sufficient energy boost without the need for extended digestion.
What to eat before exercise?
Choosing what types of foods to eat before you run all depends on how much time there is between your meal/snack and when your plan to do your run. If there is less than an hour of time before running/racing, it is recommended to eat 15-20 grams of carbohydrates (100 calories roughly). Make sure to opt for food with low protein, fiber, and fat because these foods delay digestion. Aside from delayed digestion, these foods are notorious for giving an athlete digestive issues (cramps, diarrhea, etc.).
Sample go-to foods:
For those whom struggle with digesting food before running, drinking your carbs or using gels/chews at the start or during your run can be helpful. These products are developed for athletes to aid with fueling and hydration without causing stomach distress.
If you have more time to digest before your run your amount of food can be increased. Protein can also be introduced (in small amounts) along with enough carbs. Please note that fat is still not a productive choice of fuel prior to running. It takes fat longer to digest and digestive issues could arise while on the run.
It is recommended to eat 30-40 grams of carb with a small amount protein (about 200-300 calories):
What to take away from this
Deciding if you should eat and what you should eat before running/racing can make a huge difference in your overall performance. The most important thing to remember is that if the workout is less than an hour and not intense, you’ll be fine just drinking water. However, if you have an intense workout or competition lasting longer than an hour, sports nutrition will play a critical role on how well you will perform.
Remember every individual is different and what works for one, may not work for another. Sometimes it is a case of trial and error to get the right plan for yourself.
There is a truth behind the argument that “running is natural – put in enough time and miles and you will naturally get better at it.” Yes, running in itself is simple; however, when we start increasing the frequency, the intensity, the duration of our runs this is where skill comes in. This is where sustained effort can rely on possession of a more efficient running form.
Enter the running drills. If you haven't run track and field in high school or even trained on a track, the chances of you being familiar with drill movements is slight. Though there is no one-size-fits-all way to run, the mechanical process of running can be hindered by individual biomechanical constraints. With the repetitive nature of running, as individuals, we all have personal limits as to how far and how fast we can run before injuries occur. Reducing our individual constraints and improving our running efficiency will allow us to set ourselves new limits. We are able to improve these factors when we implement running drills.
Should Beginners Do Running Drills?
The introduction of running drills, if only once a week, can reinforce the most fundamental and underappreciated concepts behind running performance. Injury prevention for runners comes down to either running less or strengthening the body more.
Running drills help enforce the fact that if you are constantly raising the demands on your body through running, unless you add suitable weekly conditioning exercises to your training program, you will eventually reach your limits and most likely get injured.
Examples Of Running Drills
Skipping places a load on the musculoskeletal system, leading to increases in strength in the supporting leg.
Keep your body tall and do not allow the arms and legs to cross the midline of the body, something that needs to be discouraged as excess rotation is thought to reduce running efficiency.
The B-Skip is an extension of the A-Skip. Importance should be given to “pulling down” the leg in order to strike the ground as this is thought to determine the power of the hip extension as the body moves over the supporting leg. The B-Skip can be a very useful in developing strength and coordination of the gluteal and hamstring muscles.
Butt kicks are considered a key running drill for athletes who want to gain better form, efficiency in their stride, and protection from injury. In particular, butt kicks may help increase the speed of hamstring contractions, which can help you run faster.
The high-knee drill exaggerates the running stride, getting your calves, glutes, and hamstrings firing while promoting knee lift and encouraging a faster turnover.
Dork walks are great for the shins, ankles, and your hips. Keep your body tall and use your arms.
Running drills can help develop efficient movement patterns that your body will then be able to adopt when running.
Performing weekly running drills can strengthen specific muscle groups that are needed for running, especially the muscles of the feet, calves, shins, thighs and hips. They also help prepare the ankle, knee and hip joints for the specific range of movements required during running.
Being an athlete, you know that injuries are inevitable. Sooner or later we all get one. So, what happens to the body when you are injured and how should you amp up your recovery?
How Does your body react when it is injured?
When an area of the body is injured an inflammatory response is set off. Although, inflammation is a crucial part of the body's natural healing process, it creates a significant challenge for your immune system. Your immune system is heavily dependent on lots of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals to provide effective protection.
When you are injured, the body triggers the immune system to begin the healing process. Cells travel to the site of the injury, some cells destroying infection and others isolating the affected area. Healthy cells nearby to the injury also become more active, using extra oxygen and energy to repair the damaged tissue. Healthy nutrition during these healing process is imperative.
Don’t Cut back on your Calories
Post injury rehab/recovery can require up to 20 percent more calories. Rehabbing an injury requires energy to heal your muscles, bones, ligaments, and tendons. I know most of us athletes immediately worry about weight gain from the decrease in activity levels; however, you will still be performing daily exercises to rehab your injury.
Eating nutrient dense food should be the first in nutritional care. If you decrease your calories this will accelerate muscle loss especially during your duration of immobility. Additionally, reducing your protein levels will lead to loss of muscle mass maintenance.
Eat More Protein
When you’re injured you lose muscle mass in the immobilized area and because of the overall decreased training. Immobilization decreases your muscle’s ability to absorb amino acids which aid with muscle's growth and repair. It is recommended to eat a high protein diet by consuming 20-35 grams of quality protein every 3 to 4 hours throughout the day. During the repair phase, you may need double the amount of protein you previously ate spread throughout your several daily meals.
Select the Right Carbs
The increase in protein doesn’t mean you should avoid eating carbs. Choose carbs that help promote healing. Carbs such as whole grains, fruits, and vegetables contain important antioxidants and nutrients for your body. They also contain dietary fiber. All of these are important for your recovery. Again, be careful choosing which carbs to eat. Eating heavily processed carbs increases inflammation in the body.
It is reasonable to replace some of the carbs you would normally consume to fit in your protein increase. Balance is important during these times of recovery.
Add some Collagen
Unlike your muscles, tendons and ligaments get nourished with little blood flow to provide nutrients. Consuming a collagen supplement 30 to 60 minutes before exercise promotes collagen-building amino acids to tend to the damaged tissue. This can help promote healing.
Calcium and Vitamin D
Calcium is important for bone strength; however, it also helps the brain signal nerves and contract muscles properly.
Vitamin-D enhances the body’s ability to absorb and process calcium for recovery. Vitamin-D is one of the best methods for natural pain management. ]
If you have become injured, it is time to start thinking about your nutrition plan. How can you use food to promote healing? Knowing how to fuel your body while rehabbing an injury is a major step to getting you back to your running routine.
Written by Pat Hallahan
Soapstone 24k is a technical 15.2 mile course consisting of roughly 2,100ft of climb. It is single track with some wider sections consisting of two major climbs (first climb at mile 3 with a 26.7% grade for .21 miles with 300ft of fun). Second climb is much more tame and is at the end of the race. Spots of the course had knee high mud if you found the right spot (in which I did and the people behind me were sure to thank me for showing them where not to go!). There are technical smaller rocks, but plenty of room to spread your legs if technical running is your sort of thing. Plus some downed trees to get those hurdle legs on as well! Let’s get into it!
I checked out the start and noticed after about 100 yards it funnels into single track and I did not want to get stuck shuffling behind people so I went out hot. The rain had just stopped and instantly the humidity came out and I knew this may be some trouble as I am a big, big sweater. I was passed and found myself running in second but quickly noticed we were going sub 5:30 the first half mile and I slowed it down a bit. I settled in 4th and knew I had gone a bit too hard with the heat. Mile 1 hit and I looked down at my watch….5:51 it read. Usually this would be fine, but my HR was not happy in the heat. I have yet to train in weather like this this season. I spent the next two miles trying to catch my breath and my legs did not have the normal climbing strength in which I find is usually my strength. I got passed some more and found myself getting worried as it was going to be a long race feeling like this already.
Mile 3ish came and we were at the first big climb. It was wet with slimy loose rocks and my race shoes do not handle the wet rocks well. Thankfully this was the only spot I really struggled getting footing. I knew my heart rate would drop a bit having to climb very slowly (even though it usually doesn’t feel that way on scramble climbs). I was disappointed with how I handled that first big climb and shortly after I found myself getting passed by Brian. Today I wanted to make sure whoever passed me just didn’t run off with it so I stuck to his heals and just ran a pace I knew I wouldn’t bonk out on. With the humidity I just knew I couldn’t push or I would unravel way further. The slightest incline was just destroying me, which was something I haven’t felt in awhile. Many things went through my mind.
My brain loves trying to trick me into stopping when my body is screaming in pain on the inside. I’ve been in this situation way too many times and know it always passes and I’ll find some relief even momentarily at some point in the race. Unfortunately, it really only came for about 1 mile, but hey, that is better than none at all! I knew another racer, Brian, was in front of me struggling in the heat as well with the grunts and vocal descriptions. I couldn’t help but laugh, smile, and totally agree. At that time we saw Ben go off course a bit and Brian gave him a holler. He would cruise back by us later and eventually I’d try to catch him one last time.
Mile 7 came and I saw I had a bit more in my legs than Brian did on the descents so I pulled the trigger and pulled away from him. Quickly we hit a slight incline and, again, my quads just were not firing. Brian and another voice was now right on me and they both cruised by. Once again I told myself just stick to Brian’s heels and don’t give up. I knew there was a big climb with the last two miles back up Soapstone Mountain and I was hoping some runners would be struggling. I made the conscious decision to stay steady and open up on the final climb. I know I can suffer with the best of them for at least two miles and then die when I finish!
Ben who went off course had gone by so I found myself in ninth place at this point. This time with 2.5ish miles left I pulled the trigger on Brian again this time on an uphill. I saw the final big climb and two people struggling - Ben and another guy who got by me. I was able to get by the one guy and was now about 20 yards behind Ben. We bombed the descent and hit the final road section. This race truly felt like a mini ultra as it just would not end in the heat! I thought it was all down hill, but the final mile was a slight incline out in the sun and I could not wait to be done!
I saw Ben take a glimpse back and see me and he was able to maintain the same pace as me and even started pulling away again. I’ll be honest, I was pretty pooped at that point and rode it home for a 7th. I thought Breakneck was going to be the most stacked race this early in the season, but this for sure was and I was so pumped with that. This makes six races for me in the last month and a half. I wanted to get that mental edge and learn as much as possible so I felt comfortable moving forward. I understand I won’t be where I want overnight and I look forward to steady progression.
Was this the race I wanted? No! But it’s what my body gave me when the time called. All we can do is learn, adapt, and push through when we truly do not want to. We never know what we are made of until we go there time and time again. I will forever have this knowledge moving forward and that’s all I can ask for.
Next up! Many On The Genny 40 miler on June 18th by #TrailsRoc
With summer weather coming, you may have noticed that your runs have begun to feel a bit more difficult. Your easy pace now feels like your hydro running and not moving anywhere. While running in the heat our bodies have to work harder to keep us cool, in turn, your heart rate will be higher and breathing becomes more difficult. Why? Your body is directing blood to the skin in order to cool you off through sweating, this means that there is less blood available to transport oxygen to your larger muscles and to your lungs. What would usually be an easy-paced run feels like a 5k sprint.
Now, distance runners are definitely not new to pushing themselves past their comfort zone when training; however, you typically start to hear complaining from just about every runner when the higher temperatures or humidity hits. However, let's put this in perspective, no one has ever improved their fitness/racing performance by being comfortable, More notably, it’s when you’re especially uncomfortable that you start to get a training effect. What is a training effect you ask? Ok, before we jump into what the training effect is. We should address how to properly and safely run in the heat until you are acclimated.
Less is Best
Wear as little clothing as legally possible - LOL. Stick to light-colored, loose, moisture wicking materials. Now is not the time for wearing all black nor cotton. Body Glide is your best friend!!!
Even if it's early morning or partly cloudy, protect yourself from skin cancer.
Wear a Hat
A hat will not only protect your skin from the sun, but it will also help to keep your face shaded.
Start Slow/End Slow
A warm up prior to a run should always be done. You want to gradually increase your heart rate.
Run Early in the Morning
Morning temperatures are usually the coolest during the summer.
Run in the Evening
Not a morning person? Then wait until the late evening when the sun is starting to set.
Take it Slow
Run for time and effort rather than distance and pace. This is important to try and do, I know it is hard to slow down sometimes.
Find your Local Trails
When the temperatures rise, asphalt absorbs heat and radiates it back into your face. Trail running usually offers shade from trees.
If you are running more than 75 to 90 minutes, carry water with you. You should also add some electrolytes to your water to help balance the extra sodium and potassium lost through increased sweating.
Now that we have talked about some safety and preparation for hot weather running, what is the training effect, how to get the benefits from running in hot weather?
Studies have shown that training two to three times per week for 20 to 90 minutes in hot conditions can produce beneficial training effects. Some of these benefits include:
So what does this mean as a whole? You can run faster and more efficiently in all temperatures.
Although we all would love to be able to run outside every day throughout the year, let's be honest about where we live. Upstate New York has some pretty harsh weather at times and there are times when a treadmill run is unavoidable. So how do we keep motivated when they are forced to run on the ‘mill?
If you just set the treadmill at one pace and run for an hour staring at a wall, you’re not going to find what brings you joy. But there are ways to make your treadmill experience a little more interesting.
Vary the pace and incline
Use the treadmill for a hill session. When you use the treadmill you should always set the incline a little (about 1%-1.5%) to better replicate running outside. To make the time a little more interesting throw in a few steeper inclines throughout your run!
Have a Plan
Running on a treadmill with no real idea of what you’re going to do, you are likely to feel less motivated. Go on the treadmill with a clear plan of what you are going to do, whether that’s distance, duration, or intervals - have a plan.
Have some Entertainment
Don't run in silence. Listen to a podcast, watch some Netflix, or put on some bangin' a$$ music to fly to.
Hide your Screen
If you watch the clock tick away on your screen or the line going around the track, you’re in for a very boring workout. It will feel like time is standing still. Cover your screen with a towel and just don’t look!
Try virtual running (like Zwift)
If you’ve not tried Zwift yet, it could be just the thing you need to stay motivated on the treadmill. Connect your Strava or Garmin Connect account, and run in real-time with others around the world. You will need a treadmill and a footpod to connect to Zwift. Then you need a device (tablet or phone) to run Zwift on.
Here are some treadmill workouts to make the time fly by:
Have you ever gone to the derby and watched a race? You probably noticed that you did not see any horses stretching before the race. Horses, our puppies, and other animals do not stretch before or after they run. Now, at your last half marathon how many people did you see in the corral stretching? It seems to be something that only we humans do. When I first started running, our group would stretch before our runs and after our runs. It was portrayed to me that in order to prevent injuries and to improve the quality of my workouts, stretching should be performed before and after each run. But was that really
The great stretching controversy. Since elementary school gym class, most of us have stretched prior to any athletic activities. We were taught that it would prevent injuries, improve performance, and reduce muscle soreness. Depending on the type of activity and the type of injury we’re trying to prevent, it is true, yes, stretching may play a safety role. If the activity includes power or springing movements, stretching can reduce injuries by increasing the compliance of tendons and improving their ability to
absorb energy. However, for lower intensity activities (that don’t include bouncing) such as running, cycling, and swimming, stretching doesn’t prevent injuries as we do not need our tendons to be compliant for these activities.
Stretching before strength training may limit how much weight lifted by an athlete because stretching affects the ability of their muscles to contract effectively. Stretching has a minimal effect on how sore someone feels after their workout. The harder or longer someone exercises microscopic damage occurs to the muscle fibers. These microscopic tears are a normal part of training. In response to the muscle fiber damage, our bodies get inflamed as blood travels to the site of the damage, the blood bring white blood cells the area to begin healing process.
An important benefit of stretching is to increase a joint’s range of
motion. When the joint is flexible the muscles are able to move dynamically through their full ranges of motion, which is important for runners. Stretching to increase flexibility, done alone and not as part of your workout, will make your running more effective. Higher weekly mileage and your long run has the potential to shorten and tighten you muscles, implementing a stretching routine throughout the week can help keep your muscle primed for your long run - before, during, and after.
Several factors that influence our flexibility:
♦ Joint functionality: The type of joint will determine the range of motion.
♦ Age: With age, muscles can shorten from a decrease in physical activity and a loss in elasticity in the
connective tissues surrounding them.
♦ Sex: Females tend to be more flexible than males of similar age throughout life, mostly due to anatomical variations in joint structures.
♦ Exercise: Exercising on a regular basis generally increases flexibility. A more sedentary lifestyle decreases
♦ Temperature: An increase in either body temperature or environmental temperature increases range of motion. That’s why it’s better to stretch after a warm-up.
I love running and I love reading. In fact, I tend to love doing them both simultaneously. However, I do all of my “reading” by listening to audiobooks. It is possible that reading while you run makes both more rewarding. I listen to my audiobooks if I get trapped on the treadmill, while I cycle on the trainer, while doing house chores, and sometimes while I am working.
My go to podcasts are: TheDaily, CrimeJunkie, and Dateline. I love true crime or a good mystery. It makes the treadmill run in my basement gym a bit tricky, trying not to fall off when a good scare happens, but it makes the time go by faster.
Also, I am completely addicted to my OverDrive App. You just link up to your local library and have thousand of audiobooks and e-books at your fingertips. Recently, I have become a fan of authors, Peter Swanson (Before She Knew Him, Every Vow You Break, The Kind Worth Killing...) and Lane Moriarty (Nine Perfect Stranger, The Husband's Secret...).
Are you a listener? What have you been reading/listening to? Give me some things to listen to!